Clarification on Black Holes and Different Representations

Figure 1: No surface at H(r) = 1

Figure 2: Convex surface at H(r) = 1

Figure 1 is a visual representation of a hole (the Schwarzschild radius, also called the gravitational radius) as a step function, where inside the hole H(r) =1, and outside the hole, which extends to infinity in this example, H(r)=0.

Figure 2 is a visual representation of a sheet intersecting the outer surface of a sphere for comparison.

Below is a visual representation of a sheet intersecting the inner surface of a sphere, also for comparison.

Figure 3: Concave surface at H(r) = 1

A black hole I prefer to describe by Figure 1, one with no interior surfaces or walls.

The hole is circular at every angle. The images above are an aesthetic representation of a hole in a sheet from an angled perspective, and the angled perspective is used only for emphasis to distinguish the outside surface of a sphere, from the inside surface of a sphere, and a hole with no observable surfaces.

All sorts of things can be happening outside the hole, where H(r) = 0. This is not discussed anywhere here on this blog — on the contrary, there is nothing observable inside the hole, no observable inside surfaces. The only edge is a delta function at the Schwarzschild radius.

Again, inside the hole there are no walls like there is inside a cavity radiator. Furthermore, there are no angles in which the hole can be observed, as implied by the images.

The hole (Schwarzschild radius) is circular at every angle, and by definition radiates nothing. And the hole is not recognized to contain any inside surfaces, such as shown in representations above, and can not be anything else but a hole because there is no reflection nor propagation of light from any observable surfaces.

Nevertheless, an arbitrary surface could be mathematically constructed in a geometrically projected space. There are different ways to graphically represent and rationalize various surfaces with a black hole “surface,” such as projected surfaces, or as the surfaces of projections, and vice versa. But by definition, a black hole is a hole. Just outside the gravitational radius is the observable activity, turbulence, heat, light, etc.

Regardless of these surfaces or no-surfaces details, paths of gravitation in this region are stipulated to be inverted as a result of the geometry as described elsewhere on this blog in detail,1 its predicate is also discussed, its approximate scale, and where these boundaries may exist,2 and how to test for this type of “non-orientability,” whether this inversion exists or not.3


1. The Projection Geometry of a Theoretical Net-Zero Gravitational Field
2. A Theoretical Net-Zero Gravitational Field

3. Notes on the Black Hole Moon Schwarzschild Radius (0.11 mm) Projection

Notes on the Black Hole Moon Schwarzschild Radius (0.11 mm) Projection

CORRECTION: An earlier version of this post improperly converted radians to arcseconds, and some table entries were errors, among other errors. [July 28, 2022]

Calculations below provide a demonstration on how using the Rayleigh criterion (R = λ/D) may be used to distinguish between two sources of radiation emitted from the surface of the Moon.  The two sources, which are emitted are: ● 0.11 mm apart ● viewed from a distance of 1.2 AU, and ● to be detected by a 16,000-meter detector.

According to the calculation, the radiation required for proper resolution would be gamma rays of wavelength 9.9 x 10-6 micrometers (3.0 x 1019 Hz) , or 124 keV.

The average distance to the Moon from Earth is 385,000 km (385,000,000 m). However, detectors must be farther than b Moon  =  9 x 10 10 m (0.6 AU)

The distance b Moon  is described in previous posts as a hypothetical spherical boundary (b) between which negative and positive gravitational accelerations are in the neighborhood of 10-10 m/sec2 and depend on the gravitational object’s Schwarzschild radius (a) and the radius of the observable universe (c), such that b2 = ac.

If detectors were placed 16,000 meters apart, located 1.8 x 1011 m (2 · b Moon = 1.2AU) from the gamma emission source on the Moon, and the image to resolve is 0.11 mm (1.1 x 10-4), then:

Tan-1 (1.1 x 10-4 m/1.8 x 1011 m) = 6.1 x 10-16 radians = 1.3 x 10-10 arcseconds

The Rayleigh criterion R (in arcseconds) = 0.21 λ/D, where λ is the wavelength in micrometres and D is the size of the telescope in metres, or the smallest distance between two gamma ray detectors.[1]

D = 16,000 meters *

R = 1.3 x 10-10 arcseconds

(1.3 x 10-10 x 16,000)/0.21  = 9.9 x 10-6 μm (gamma rays)

                                                  = 9.9 x 10-6 μm = 3.0 x 1019 Hz  = 124 keV

*A 16,000 meter detector would be a very large. However, using a large number of smaller detectors spread across a 16,000-meter area and detecting a small fraction of the emissions may be sufficient to form a conclusion.

The resolution can be improved and the size D may be reduced, when used in conjunction with higher energy gamma rays, such as the decay of Technicium-99, which is used in nuclear medicine, has a half-life of six hours and produces 140 keV gamma rays, or Cobalt-60, which emits two gamma rays with energies of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV and has a half-life of 5.27 years.

Similar calculations can be made with respect to the Earth. Here are some preliminary Python scripts used to calculate the experimental parameters relative to the Moon and the Earth. The purpose of this experiment is to test orientability using gamma rays under extraordinary spatial constraints relative to a gravitational field.

Using a Box with Two Small Holes

For example, a box with two very small apertures containing Cobalt-60 emitting 1.1 – 1.3 MeV gamma rays is placed on the surface of the Moon (see image below). The center between the apertures lies on a plane perpendicular to the gravitational field. Emissions radiating from one of the holes would first have to pass through a filter, and the pair of emissions would be of different wavelengths and distinguishable from the point of view of the detectors.

Click to Enlarge

The entire speculation is, given high energy photons across large spatial distances, can orientability under the influence of a gravitational field be tested using the Rayleigh Criterion?

Click to Enlarge

 Parameters for Three Experimental Apparatus
 Location  Distance between Apertures Distance to Detectors Required Energy of Gamma Rays
 Moon  ~ 0.11 mm  ~ 1.2 AU  ~ 124 keV
 Mars  ~ 0.9 mm  ~ 4 AU  ~ 54 keV
 Earth  ~ 9 mm  ~ 13 AU  ~ 18 keV

Click here to visit a site on gamma ray detection, NASA’s GLAST Burst Monitor. For a list of comparable scales, see this NASA planet distance chart.

Things Look Pretty Flat


Click to Enlarge
 Mass and Schwarzschild Radii of Various Celestial Objects:*
 Object Mass RSchwarzschild
 Neutron Star 2.8 × 1030 kg 4.2 × 103 m = 4.2 km
 Sun 2.0 × 1030 kg 3.0 × 103 m = 3 km
 Jupiter 1.9 × 1027 kg 2.2 m = 2.2 m
 Earth 6.0 × 1024 kg 8.7 × 10-3 m = 8.7 mm
 Moon 7.3 × 1022 kg 1.1 × 10-4 m = 0.11 mm !

“When formal observations begin in July, DKIST, with its 13-foot mirror, will be the most powerful solar telescope in the world. Located on Haleakalā (the tallest summit on Maui), the telescope will be able to observe structures on the surface of the sun as small as 18.5 miles (30 kilometers). This resolution is over five times better than that of DKIST’s predecessor, the Richard B. Dunn Solar Telescope in New Mexico.”

— Neel V. Patel, MIT Technology Review


The Projection Geometry of a Theoretical Net-Zero Gravitational Field

There are some equations I’m working on.[1]  They are intended to describe a projection from the outside surface of a sphere to the inside surface of a concentric spherical shell. This paradigm corresponds to a hypothetical gravitational field that has a net zero gravitational force in a universe with a single black hole.[2]

In two dimensions, the equations are scaled and rotated logarithmic spirals, which preserve the angles between its tangent and the intersecting circle — the polar slope angle is constant, which is consistent with flat planar projections. The equations in three dimensions will be published in a later post.

There exists at least one r11) and a scaled inverse r21 + φ2), where every product of r1(φ) with r2 (φ) is constant. See the proof at the bottom of the page. 

See equations (1-5) below, which include:
  (1) logarithmic spiral in polar form (red),  
  (2) the inverse of equation 1 (black),  
  (3) equation 2 scaled and rotated (blue), and  
  (4) domain, scaling and rotational factors.

{r_a = 1,  \quad r_b = 2, \quad r_c = 4} \quad : \quad {r_b^2 = r_a \cdot r_c}

(1)   \begin{equation*} $ ${r(\varphi) = b \cdot e^{\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi)}}$ \end{equation*}

(2)   \begin{equation*} $ $r(\varphi) = \frac{1}{b} \cdot e^{-\frac{k}{\pi}(\varphi)$ \end{equation*}

(3)   \begin{equation*} $ $r(\varphi) = b \cdot e^k \cdot e^{-\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi+\pi)}= b \cdot e^{-\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi)}}$ \end{equation*}

(4)   \begin{equation*} $ $-\frac{\pi \cdot \ln{b}}{k} \leq \varphi \leq \frac{\pi \cdot \ln{b}}{k} $ \end{equation*}

(5)   \begin{equation*} $ $k = P^{-1} \ln{b} $ \end{equation*}

The variable P is the subtended projection angle in units of turns, 1=π (or 1=1/2 turn), and the variable b is the radius of the neutral surface, where all projection lines meet.

Below is an example drawn to represent the projection in three dimensions (not to scale) in a universe containing only a single black hole — a very small universe with a very large black hole!
[Click the image to enlarge.]

[1] For a more dynamic view of these equations, visit
[2] Here is where I am on all this speculation. Click the link to see a recently reported-measurable experiment inside (see page 18). This link has a graphic on page 24 that might be helpful.

Happy Pi Day, everyone!


    \begin{align*} b \cdot e^k \cdot e^{-\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi+\pi)}  \quad \times \quad {b \cdot e^{\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi)}} \quad &= \quad b^2 \\ e^k \cdot e^{-\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi+\pi)}  \quad \times \quad {e^{\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi)}}\quad &= \quad 1 \\ e^k \cdot e^{-\frac{k}{\pi}(\varphi)-\frac{k}{\pi}(\pi)} \quad \times \quad {e^{\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi)}}\quad &= \\ e^k \cdot e^{-\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi)} \cdot e^{-k} \quad \times \quad {e^{\frac{k}{\pi} (\varphi)}}\quad &= \\ e^0 \cdot e^0 \quad &= \\ \end{align*}

Definition of a Point Mass

Every point mass has a Schwarzchild radius:


For theoretical purposes, in using point masses to calculate gravitational fields, a surface is calculated equal to the Schwarzchild radius. Every mass, or collection of particles, if reduced to a point would be contained by this surface. The surface derived classically in General Relativity is static and isotropic; in reality, the surface may not necessarily be either:

Rendered by

Confinement Issues


Fig 1:  dx=2r2/R  [proof]

Without hypothesizing on how such a classical state exists, a possible “confinement argument” is represented by this drawing that shows that for particles P, if they repel, work has to be performed across distance x to exist inside surface (S).

Resistance to compression is a quantum mechanical reaction that violates classical mechanics.

Because there are limits to the energy of “stationary” massive particles, as there are limits to the capacity for a particle to be stationary, defined by Plank’s Constant, I imagine a circumstance at the core of a collapsing neutron star, under such enormous compression at the core, that the capacity of a particle to remain confined at the very center is lost, and propelled outward, and unable to be replaced by another similar particle, for the very same reason, and as the remaining innermost shell of the core continues to be compressed by the increasing pressure of the collapse, a chain reaction ensues, and the star collapses simultaneously from both the outside inward and the inside outward.

How can I construct a plausible mathematical argument that would prove such a collapse takes place, if indeed it does?

Time delay in quantum coherence and tunneling?

Well, maybe in my dreams.  The counter-arguments to hollow black holes would include statements to the effect that the particles would not all necessarily be fundamental particles,  nor that are all of the same type; another counter-argument made might be that certain properties of the bodies to reach such a heightened state of entropy contradicts the possibility of such implicit order in its behavior (coherence).  Or that the observed diameter of existing “black holes” and neutron stars, and the periods of their orbiting celestial objects, rule out their “hollowness.”

It would be possible that the theoretical fundamental particles in question, ie. those that comprise the entirety of the hypothetical surface, may be a particle that changes state with a period. For example, changing from having mass to not having mass, and these flavor changes corresponding to the period, may also correlate its position and direction relative to the surface and any coherence, or tunneling, across the interior of the sphere (or it’s surface): whether on the inside and moving toward the outside, or vice-versa.

Whether the shell of a “hollow black hole” could be high enough in its density to equal in mass a solid sphere of a similar diameter, ie. to within a few orders of magnitude— to within the resolving power of observations required to discriminate black hole from neutron star diameters, and how these diameters correspond to the periods of surrounding orbiting bodies.

Random notes’ quotes:

Einstein: from the point of view in General Relativity that one finds it “appropriate to introduce a tensor Tuv,  ”[1]  as “It is only the circumstance that we have no sufficient knowledge of the electromagnetic field of concentrated charges that compels us, provisionally, to leave undetermined in presenting the theory [GR], the true form of this tensor.”[2] And simultaneously,  to “introduce a negative pressure for which there exists no physical justification.” [3] the “cosmological constant”.

Hollow Black Holes

Fig. 1: Minimum Conditions for Hollowness: (S) is the Shwarzschild radius, and the probability is zero that a mass particle can be found at the origin; another possibility is that the thickness of the surface (S) is very thin, and the probability is zero the particle will be found anywhere else but near (S).


Fig. 2: Gravitational Flux at the Gaussian Surface: If the thickness of the surface at (S) is very thin relative to the diameter at (S), (S) can be regarded “as practically flat.” [See Electromagnetic Fields and Waves (1979), by Vladimir Rojansky, p. 225.]


Fig 3: In other notation, Dirac’s Delta Function can be visualized as the limit of the function as the width of the curve shrinks to zero about (S). [See Electromagnetic Fields and Waves (1979), by Vladimir Rojansky, pp. 245-246.]

Why any of this may occur is not explained nor even successfully contemplated, although a good place to start seems Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, the Schrodinger Wave Function, Special and General Relativity (where else is there??) and their confinement issues.

Consider the limits to the energies allowed in an amount of space, and the limits to the speed of communication; for example, an orbiting electron does not collide with a proton even though they are “very close” and their mutual attraction is extraordinary.  The comparison of an electric field with a gravitational one, where the distribution of surface charge in a spherical conductor resembles the “surface mass” of a black hole would provide the added utility of precluding the black hole as a point-type singularity. It would be interesting to see under what conditions, if any, this “hollow” hypothesis can hold.

That all the gravitational flux may be limited in its transmission along the surface of a black hole, about the Schwarzschild radius, makes the relations of Equation (6) exact, and would describe the gravitational field of a black hole entirely, and is the subject of my study.


Rotation of Galactic Volume


Fig: The Rotational Inertia of a Point Mass in a Galaxy as Constant

The diagram above describes a pair of conditions that will manifest a constant rotational inertia about the center of a galaxy: 1) the total mass, and 2) the cross-sectional area of the galactic disk are proportional to the radius. A larger version of the diagram is located here.

A Theoretical Net-Zero Gravitational Field


Net Gravitational Energy = 0

In Standard Cosmology, the motion of matter—such as stars, and planets about stars, and objects about planets—are all moving about the centers of galaxies. These paths are presumed elliptical and are thoroughly examined and well-understood. The orbital motions of galaxies about other galaxies, however, are less understood; less observed, less measured.

I hypothesize that the orbital motions of galaxies about other galaxies include non-planar orbital periods that are very, very large. And if this chaotic motion is to exist over hundreds of billions of Earth years, a chaotic mixing of galaxies in the closed space of the Universe, albeit across the vast spaces would include paths that are not elliptical about a single stationary point, or foci. As an alternative, the paths may resemble more the motion of the turbulent mixing of oceans, such as the Atlantic Conveyor Belt Circulation here on Earth. [2]

I attempt to explain this turbulent mixing of galaxies as the consequence of a hypothesis that is distinct in its character: Perhaps, the total gravitational energy driving the turbulent mixing is gravitationally positive in composition, like that of Einstein’s Cosmological Constant; and opposed equally, by the total negative gravitational energy bound in collections of matter contained in negative fields, as those described by classical gravitational theory.

The principle that makes this circumstance possible (in hypothesis) is asserted by an argument that is based on symmetry and conservation: that the total negative gravitational energy of these bound collections of matter, is equal to the total positive gravitational energy hypothesized to cause the expansion of the Universe, ie. the appearance, by Doppler Shift, as quantified by Hubble’s Law, and other motion.

The Principle of Universe Expansion is not in dispute; the size and rate of expansion will be argued, however.

DEFINITION: Gravitational Equilibrium: Negative Energy (Orbits of Celestial Bodies) + Positive Energy (“Expansion of the Universe”) = Zero. This is the principle by which all the propositions here are characterized.


“Internal motions” are those elliptical orbital motions about centers of matter, such as satellites about planets, planets about stars, and stars within the Galactic Bulge; these motions are driven by negative gravitational energy, are closed and bound.

“External motions” are those driven by a net gravitational energy that is positive in sign (and hypothetical), that are particular to the motions of objects outside a zero boundary. These motions not only include those of particles in the Galactic Disk but also the motions of distant Galaxies with respect to one another: closed and unbound.


[1] With respect to galaxies, I postulate that the boundary between predominately internal motions and external ones is the boundary between the Galalctic Bulge and the Galactic Disk; and that every collection of matter has a similar boundary. This principle and its cause, the central focus of my study, is to be examined continually, and throughout, with increasing detail.

[2] The space of the Universe is postulated to be finite and closed; therefore the Turbulent Mixing of Galaxies across the vast spaces of the Universe are motions along paths that are closed. These paths are closed, but these paths are orbits changing in direction that is not always planar, have average radii similar in scale to the radius of the Universe, and traverse across vast timescales.

Hypothetical World Line


Fig. 1: R(t)=size of cosmological space, T(t)=clock-time of cosmological space, dR=change in size of cosmological space, dT=change in the rate of clock-time, dL=change in position of photon. The vector product, dR X dT = -dL

Trial and Error

Given three vectors: Cosmological Expansion, Speed of Light and Time, what field operations can one perform upon them? With respect to General Relativity, the Robertson-Walker Line Element, and the orbital motions of stars about galactic nuclei, I thought I would experiment with multiplication.

The expansion function, R(t) and the time function, T(t) are related here in that the cross product of their derivatives are constant and equal to the translation of light across a cosmological space under the influence of a distribution of gravitational energy that is being defined by the constructions in previous articles. The cross product has been chosen directly as an argument symmetrical to that of an electron moving in a magnetic field.
This article diagrams previously under-emphasized information, and a consequence of the “cosmological cross product”: that the photon moves across a space that contains no net gravitational energy, and so does no work on average. However, photons reaching the Earth from great distances have not average paths, but mostly histories of travel through”empty”, gravitationally positive—though increasingly weak—postive-gravitational space. In other words, excluding gravitationally lensed photons, observed photons from very deep space have not come under any significant gravitational influence of large concentrations of matter (galaxies), ie. about regions of galactic nuclei; though have traveled during a process of Universe expansion.

How the redshift of photons due to expansion, or due to time dilation escaping regions of negative gravitational energy (stars) relates to any “blueshift” that photons may obtain—caused by a path through a positive gravitational expansion—will hopefully be examined subsequently.