Net Gravitational Energy = 0

In Standard Cosmology, the motion of matter—such as stars, and planets about stars, and objects about planets—are all moving about the centers of galaxies. These paths are presumed elliptical and are thoroughly examined in literature. The orbital motions of galaxies about other galaxies, however, are less understood; less observed, less measured.

I hypothesize that the orbital motions of galaxies about other galaxies include non-planar orbital periods that are very, very large. And if this chaotic dance is to exist over hundreds of billions of Earth years, this chaotic mixing of galaxies in the closed space of the Universe, albeit across the vast spaces would include paths that are not elliptical about a single stationary point, or foci. As an alternative, the paths may resemble more the motion of the turbulent mixing of oceans, such as the Atlantic Conveyor Belt Circulation here on Earth. [2]

I attempt to explain this turbulent mixing of galaxies as subject to a law that is distinct in its character.  Perhaps, with the simple modification that the total gravitational energy driving the turbulent mixing is gravitationally positive in composition, like that of Einstein’s Cosmological Constant; and opposed, by the total gravitational energy bound in collections of matter contained in the negative fields, as those described by classical gravitational theory.

The principle that makes this circumstance possible (in hypothesis) is asserted by an argument that is based purely on symmetry and conservation: that the total negative gravitational energy of these bound collections of matter, is equal to the total positive gravitational energy hypothesized to cause the expansion of the Universe, ie. the appearance, by Doppler Shift, as quantified by Hubble’s Law.

The Principle of Universe Expansion is not in dispute; the size and rate of expansion will be argued, however.

DEFINITION: Gravitational Equilibrium: Negative Energy (Orbits of Celestial Bodies) + Positive Energy (Expansion of the Universe) = Zero

This is the principle by which all study here is characterized.


“Internal motions” are those elliptical orbital motions about centers of matter, such as satellites about planets, planets about stars, and stars within the Galactic Bulge; these motions are driven by negative gravitational energy, are closed and bound.

“External motions” are those driven by a net gravitational energy that is positive in sign (and hypothetical), that are particular to the motions of objects outside a zero boundary. These motions not only include those of particles in the Galactic Disk but also the motions of distant Galaxies with respect to one another: closed and unbound.


[1] With respect to galaxies, I postulate that the boundary between predominately internal motions and external ones is the boundary between the Galalctic Bulge and the Galactic Disk; and that every collection of matter has a similar boundary. This principle and its cause, the central focus of my study, is to be examined continually, and throughout, with increasing detail.

[2] The space of the Universe is postulated to be finite and closed; therefore the Turbulent Mixing of Galaxies across the vast spaces of the Universe are motions along paths that are closed. These paths are closed, but these paths are orbits changing in direction that is not always planar, have average radii similar in scale to the radius of the Universe, and traverse across vast timescales.